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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Brassinosteroids: A Class of Plant Hormone | Brassinosteroids (BRs) comprise a specific class of low-abundance plant steroids .
Table of contents

It has been proposed that brassinolide is biosynthesized from campesterol via campestanol CN in the original BR biosynthetic pathway. However, a recent enzymatic analysis of cytochrome P enzymes and re-evaluation of the endogenous amount of BRs in BR-deficient mutants included an investigation of the novel BR biosynthetic pathway CN-independent pathway not via CN.

This review highlights comprehensive recent advances in the biochemical research of BR biosynthetic enzymes and the CN-independent pathway. Already have an account? Login in here. Journal of Pesticide Science. Journal home Advance online publication Journal issue About the journal. BRI1 is highly expressed in various tissues of plants and functions as the major receptor of BRs, whereas the expression of BRL1 and BRL3 is confined to vascular cells and display weak phenotypes when knocked out [ 22 ].

In , J. Both groups presented evidence showing that BRI1 and BAK1 interacted with each other in vitro and in vivo, which contributed to BR signalling [ 23 , 24 ].

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The serk1 bak1 bkk1 triple null mutant phenocopied a null bri1 mutant, establishing an indispensable role of SERKs in BR signalling [ 27 ]. These results indicate that ligand-induced dimerization seen for the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases RTKs and other single trans-membrane receptors in animals is also conserved in the activation of plant RLKs [ 33 — 36 ]. BL pink is shown as a stick diagram. The island domain of BRI1 is shown in grey. The BR signalling pathway is a complex phosphor-relay system that mediates plant growth and development [ 37 ] Fig.

Additionally, many other transcription factors also contribute to the global BR responses [ 38 — 40 ]. The brassinosteroid signal transduction pathway in the absence a and presence b of brassinosteroid BR in Arabidopsis. Arrows and short lines represent promotion and inhibition, respectively. Brassinosteroids regulate many development processes in plants, as well as responses to environmental stresses and their roles in the growth—defence trade-off have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems.

To ensure perpetuation, plants need to balance their limited resources for growth and defence [ 41 ]. Several plant hormones, including BRs, have been suggested to play roles in the trade-off between growth and defence [ 42 ]. Recent studies indicated that interaction of BR signalling with PAMP-triggered immunity is unidirectional and negative [ 43 , 44 ].


Brassinosteroids, A Class of Plant Hormone by Shamsul Hayat | | Booktopia

More recent data appear to support the idea that the interaction is located at the transcriptional level rather than at the receptor complex [ 45 — 48 ], though the underlying mechanisms remain debatable. Understanding of the mechanisms for these trade-offs is expected to provide a foundation for development of breeding strategies to maximize crop yield. Great advances have been achieved in our understanding of the BR signalling pathway and BR biosynthesis and metabolism.

Fully addressing this question will require detailed elucidation of structure of the full-length complex. New components are being identified in brassinosteroid signalling and understanding of how they are integrated with other signalling pathways will be important to gain a comprehensive and systematic view of brassinosteroid functions in various plants [ 49 , 50 ]. A full elucidation of brassinosteroid signalling events and their integration with other signalling pathways will enable brassinosteroid to be applied in agriculture.

Jiao Tang, Email: moc. Zhifu Han, Email: moc. Jijie Chai, Email: nc. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Biol. Published online Dec Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. What are the plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids? How were brassinosteroids found? What are the structures of brassinosteroids? Open in a separate window. What parts of plants are brassinosteroids usually found in?

What do plants do with excess brassinosteroids? What are the receptors for brassinosteroids? What are the BRI1-associated receptor kinases? How does BRI1 recognize brassinosteroids and consequently become activated? How are the signals downstream of brassinosteroid signalling transduced? The potential role of brassinosteroids in the plant growth-immunity trade-off is intriguing—can you describe it?

Bibliographic Information

What other unknowns are there in brassinosteroid signalling? Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Contributor Information Jiao Tang, Email: moc. References 1. Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant Physiol. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates; Clouse SD. The Arabidopsis book. Gudesblat GE, Russinova E. Proposed mechanism of BRs regulation of heavy metal stress tolerance in plants. Exogenously applied BRs enhance the tolerance to oxidative, and heavy metals stress.

It is accompanied by the accumulation of H 2 O 2 and the enhancement of antioxidants enzymes, which scavenge excessive ROS. However, there is no evidence on direct association or interaction with BRs. The molecular mechanism of BR-induced plant stress tolerance remains poorly understood. BRs mitigate the negative impact of metal toxicity by enhancing lipid peroxidation, sodium and potassium ion concentrations, proline content, total osmolyte content, and level of antioxidants.

The chelation of the metal ion by PC is other mechanisms for metal detoxification. Dotted line shows the possible mechanism, which remains to be explored. Modified from Sharma et al. Brassinosteroids may inhibit the degradation of lipids resulting from the overproduction of ROS under metal stress, and stimulate the activity of antioxidative enzymes Figure 1 Sudo et al.

The modified activity of antioxidant enzymes may suggest that HBL treated seedlings were affected by chromium to a lesser extent than those which have not been supplemented with HBL Sharma et al. It has also been proved that in B. Synthesis of BRs is either an example of direct impact of metal stress or a response of B. The syntheses of PC are one of the mechanism of metal detoxification in plants. PC are metal-binding cysteine-rich compounds, which facilitate the chelation of metal ions in cytosol or their compartmentalization in vacuoles Figure 1. These metal-binding peptides are derived from glutathione.

BRs are known to stimulate the syntheses of PC in cells treated with lead Bajguz, Biosorption is another mechanism used by plants to remove metals, independent of cell metabolism. Binding metal ions may occur through the mechanism of physical adsorption, ion exchange, chemical sorption, complexation, or chelatation. The metal ions are adsorbed by biosorbents as a result of their interactions with functional carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino, phosphoryl, etc. Research on the usefulness of sorption in removing metal ions from water solutions proves that the pH of the solution is particularly important for the process.

The optimum pH of metal ions sorption for most of the natural sorbents is within the range of 4—6 Han et al. Lowering the pH in cell wall spaces stimulates the growth of C. The impact of BRs on proton excretion is related to early hyperpolarization of transmembrane electrical potential. Plants under various stresses, both biotic and abiotic ones, generate large amounts of ROS which may oxidize lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, resulting in disturbances at the cellular level which lead to apoptosis.

BR signal transduction may result in activation of NADPH oxidase to ROS production, which probably initiates a cascade of protein phosphorylation through MAPKs to activate transcription factors to target specific genes participating in cellular protection Xia et al. Owing to the importance of BRs in the crop improvement, further investigations are needed to identify the key regulatory elements in BR signaling pathway and the underlying mechanism of BR-modulated growth and developmental responses in major crop plants to design optimal strategies to enhance crop yield and improve their performance under stress conditions.

Care about the environment and the necessity to restore its original properties forces people to seek new, alternative ways of cleaning the environment. A cheap and promising way of solving ecological problems is phytoremediation. Assisted phytoremediation is based on chemical additives to soil, such as chelators, organic acids, etc. Some recent studies are focused on the use of phytohormones as plant additives for phytoremediation purposes Barbafieri and Tassi, Because BRs can modify some agronomic traits of plants, the application of these phytohormones in phytoremediation is a desired subject of study.

IR and MT contributed to the writing of the manuscript. AB participated in drawing Figure 1 and in critically revising the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Abdullahi, B. Brassinolide amelioration of aluminium toxicity in mung bean seedling growth. Plant Nutr. Ali, B. A role for brassinosteroids in the amelioration of aluminum stress through antioxidant system in mung bean Vigna radiata L.

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Chemosphere 72, — Anuradha, S. Effect of epibrassinolide on the growth and antioxidant enzyme activities in radish seedlings under lead toxicity. Indian J. Plant Physiol. Google Scholar. The effect of brassinosteroids on radish Raphanus sativus L. Plant Soil Environ. Bajguz, A. Blockade of heavy metals accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris cells by epibrassinolide.

SALICYLIC ACID - A Plant Hormone

Brassinosteroids and lead as stimulators of phytochelatins synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism of brassinosteroids in plants. Khan, R. Nazar, N. Iqbal, and N. Anjum Berlin: Springer-Verlag , — Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses. Barbafieri, M. Hayat and A. Ahmad Dordrecht: Springer , — Bhardwaj, R.

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Effects of homobrassinolide on seedling growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities under nickel stress in seedlings of Zea mays L. Asian J.

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Plant Sci. Chary, N. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Clouse, S. Brassinosteroids: essential regulators of plant growth and development.