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If so, which needs and whose needs can defensibly do this? What are the grounds for our responsibilities to meet others' needs, when.
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Social workers may limit clients' right to self-determination when, in the social workers' professional judgment, clients' actions or potential actions pose a serious, foreseeable, and imminent risk to themselves or others. Social workers should use clear and understandable language to inform clients of the purpose of the services, risks related to the services, limits to services because of the requirements of a third-party payer, relevant costs, reasonable alternatives, clients' right to refuse or withdraw consent, and the time frame covered by the consent.

Social workers should provide clients with an opportunity to ask questions. This may include providing clients with a detailed verbal explanation or arranging for a qualified interpreter or translator whenever possible. In such instances social workers should seek to ensure that the third party acts in a manner consistent with clients' wishes and interests.

Social workers should take reasonable steps to enhance such clients' ability to give informed consent. If clients do not wish to use services provided through technology, social workers should help them identify alternate methods of service. Exceptions may arise when the search is for purposes of protecting the client or other people from serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm, or for other compelling professional reasons.

This includes an understanding of the special communication challenges when using technology and the ability to implement strategies to address these challenges. Social workers should assess cultural, environmental, economic, mental or physical ability, linguistic, and other issues that may affect the delivery or use of these services. Social workers should inform clients when a real or potential conflict of interest arises and take reasonable steps to resolve the issue in a manner that makes the clients' interests primary and protects clients' interests to the greatest extent possible.

In some cases, protecting clients' interests may require termination of the professional relationship with proper referral of the client. In instances when dual or multiple relationships are unavoidable, social workers should take steps to protect clients and are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries. Dual or multiple relationships occur when social workers relate to clients in more than one relationship, whether professional, social, or business. Dual or multiple relationships can occur simultaneously or consecutively.

Social workers who anticipate a conflict of interest among the individuals receiving services or who anticipate having to perform in potentially conflicting roles for example, when a social worker is asked to testify in a child custody dispute or divorce proceedings involving clients should clarify their role with the parties involved and take appropriate action to minimize any conflict of interest.

Social workers should be aware that involvement in electronic communication with groups based on race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, mental or physical ability, religion, immigration status, and other personal affiliations may affect their ability to work effectively with particular clients.

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Social workers should not solicit private information from or about clients except for compelling professional reasons. Once private information is shared, standards of confidentiality apply. The general expectation that social workers will keep information confidential does not apply when disclosure is necessary to prevent serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a client or others.


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In all instances, social workers should disclose the least amount of confidential information necessary to achieve the desired purpose; only information that is directly relevant to the purpose for which the disclosure is made should be revealed. This applies whether social workers disclose confidential information on the basis of a legal requirement or client consent. Social workers should review with clients circumstances where confidential information may be requested and where disclosure of confidential information may be legally required.

This discussion should occur as soon as possible in the social worker-client relationship and as needed throughout the course of the relationship. This agreement should include consideration of whether confidential information may be exchanged in person or electronically, among clients or with others outside of formal counseling sessions.

Social workers should inform participants in family, couples, or group counseling that social workers cannot guarantee that all participants will honor such agreements. Social workers should not discuss confidential information in public or semi-public areas such as hallways, waiting rooms, elevators, and restaurants. When a court of law or other legally authorized body orders social workers to disclose confidential or privileged information without a client's consent and such disclosure could cause harm to the client, social workers should request that the court withdraw the order or limit the order as narrowly as possible or maintain the records under seal, unavailable for public inspection.

Necessary Goods: Our Responsibilities to Meet Others Needs - Gillian Brock - Google Books

Social workers should take reasonable steps to ensure that clients' records are stored in a secure location and that clients' records are not available to others who are not authorized to have access. Social workers should use applicable safeguards such as encryption, firewalls, and passwords when using electronic communications such as e-mail, online posts, online chat sessions, mobile communication, and text messages. Social workers who are concerned that clients' access to their records could cause serious misunderstanding or harm to the client should provide assistance in interpreting the records and consultation with the client regarding the records.

Social workers should limit clients' access to their records, or portions of their records, only in exceptional circumstances when there is compelling evidence that such access would cause serious harm to the client. Both clients' requests and the rationale for withholding some or all of the record should be documented in clients' files. Sexual activity or sexual contact with clients' relatives or other individuals with whom clients maintain a personal relationship has the potential to be harmful to the client and may make it difficult for the social worker and client to maintain appropriate professional boundaries.

Social workers--not their clients, their clients' relatives, or other individuals with whom the client maintains a personal relationship--assume the full burden for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries. If social workers engage in conduct contrary to this prohibition or claim that an exception to this prohibition is warranted because of extraordinary circumstances, it is social workers--not their clients--who assume the full burden of demonstrating that the former client has not been exploited, coerced, or manipulated, intentionally or unintentionally.

Providing clinical services to a former sexual partner has the potential to be harmful to the individual and is likely to make it difficult for the social worker and individual to maintain appropriate professional boundaries. Social workers should not engage in physical contact with clients when there is a possibility of psychological harm to the client as a result of the contact such as cradling or caressing clients.

Social workers who engage in appropriate physical contact with clients are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries that govern such physical contact. Social workers should not sexually harass clients. Sexual harassment includes sexual advances; sexual solicitation; requests for sexual favors; and other verbal, written, electronic, or physical contact of a sexual nature. Social workers should not use derogatory language in their written, verbal, or electronic communications to or about clients.

Social workers should use accurate and respectful language in all communications to and about clients. Consideration should be given to clients' ability to pay. Bartering arrangements, particularly involving services, create the potential for conflicts of interest, exploitation, and inappropriate boundaries in social workers' relationships with clients.

Social workers should explore and may participate in bartering only in very limited circumstances when it can be demonstrated that such arrangements are an accepted practice among professionals in the local community, considered to be essential for the provision of services, negotiated without coercion, and entered into at the client's initiative and with the client's informed consent.

Social workers who accept goods or services from clients as payment for professional services assume the full burden of demonstrating that this arrangement will not be detrimental to the client or the professional relationship. When social workers act on behalf of clients who lack the capacity to make informed decisions, social workers should take reasonable steps to safeguard the interests and rights of those clients.

Social workers should make reasonable efforts to ensure continuity of services in the event that services are interrupted by factors such as unavailability, disruptions in electronic communication, relocation, illness, mental or physical ability, or death. Social workers who refer clients to other professionals should disclose, with clients' consent, all pertinent information to the new service providers. Social workers should withdraw services precipitously only under unusual circumstances, giving careful consideration to all factors in the situation and taking care to minimize possible adverse effects.

Social workers should assist in making appropriate arrangements for continuation of services when necessary. Unwarranted negative criticism may include demeaning comments that refer to colleagues' level of competence or to individuals' attributes such as race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, and mental or physical ability.

Social workers should respect confidential information shared by colleagues in the course of their professional relationships and transactions. Social workers should ensure that such colleagues understand social workers' obligation to respect confidentiality and any exceptions related to it. Professional and ethical obligations of the interdisciplinary team as a whole and of its individual members should be clearly established. If the disagreement cannot be resolved, social workers should pursue other avenues to address their concerns consistent with client well-being.

Social workers should seek consultation only from colleagues who have demonstrated knowledge, expertise, and competence related to the subject of the consultation. Social workers who become involved in, or anticipate becoming involved in, a sexual relationship with a colleague have a duty to transfer professional responsibilities, when necessary, to avoid a conflict of interest.

Social workers should not sexually harass supervisees, students, trainees, or colleagues. Social workers should be familiar with national, state, and local procedures for handling ethics complaints. These include policies and procedures created by NASW, licensing and regulatory bodies, employers, agencies, and other professional organizations.

Social work educators and field instructors are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries. Social workers who have responsibility for evaluating the performance of others should fulfill such responsibility in a fair and considerate manner and on the basis of clearly stated criteria. Records should be maintained for the number of years required by relevant laws, agency policies, and contracts.

Social workers should establish and maintain billing practices that accurately reflect the nature and extent of services provided and that identify who provided the service in the practice setting. To minimize possible confusion and conflict, social workers should discuss with potential clients the nature of the clients' current relationship with other service providers and the implications, including possible benefits or risks, of entering into a relationship with a new service provider.

When not all clients' needs can be met, an allocation procedure should be developed that is nondiscriminatory and based on appropriate and consistently applied principles. Social work administrators should take reasonable steps to eliminate any conditions in their organizations that violate, interfere with, or discourage compliance with the Code. As a result, coworkers will be more comfortable interacting with you and more willing to seek your assistance and advice. Good interpersonal skills show that you have an interest in the wellbeing of coworkers and customers, gaining their trust and confidence as a result.

For example, a keen sense of perception and emotional intelligence can help you through a particularly tricky social situation; interpersonal skills also help you make the right decisions and judgement calls about sensitive work-related issues. A lack of transparency can result in disenfranchised employees and disloyalty amongst the workforce. Interpersonal skills are at their most effective, beneficial and rewarding when they foster meaningful relationships. Not only is it important to build personal relationships in the workplace, but it is also important to maintain these relationships within professional boundaries.

Maintaining these relationships can prove to be even more challenging than creating them, as it involves multiple variables like consistency, follow-through and continued empathy. Therefore, the best way to maintain interpersonal relationships in the workplace is to make them sincere. If you take a look at any list or article that talks about interpersonal skills in the workplace, their importance to effective management and leadership will be a recurring theme.

This is because the ability to foster interpersonal relationships, establish trust and communicate clearly are all crucial skills for an effective leader. A leader without the ability to connect with their team will inevitably fail in the long term, while valuable team members will likely jump ship in the short term. Either way, it will result in a loss of productivity, and it will burden the remaining employees with additional work.

Several policy and market-based solutions have been promoted to address the loss of employment and wages forecast by technologists and economists. A key idea emerging from many conversations, including one of the lynchpin discussions at the World Economic Forum in , is that changes in educational and learning environments are necessary to help people stay employable in the labor force of the future.

At the same time, recent IT advances offer new and potentially more widely accessible ways to access education. This survey noted that employment is much higher among jobs that require an average or above-average level of preparation including education, experience and job training ; average or above-average interpersonal, management and communication skills; and higher levels of analytical skills, such as critical thinking and computer skills.


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  7. A central question about the future, then, is whether formal and informal learning structures will evolve to meet the changing needs of people who wish to fulfill the workplace expectations of the future. Some 1, responded to the following question, sharing their expectations about what is likely to evolve by In the next 10 years, do you think we will see the emergence of new educational and training programs that can successfully train large numbers of workers in the skills they will need to perform the jobs of the future? It is important to note that many respondents listed human behaviors, attributes and competencies in describing desirable work skills.

    A diversifying education and credentialing ecosystem : Most of these experts expect the education marketplace — especially online learning platforms — to continue to change in an effort to accommodate the widespread needs. Some predict employers will step up their own efforts to train and retrain workers. Respondents see a new education and training ecosystem emerging in which some job preparation functions are performed by formal educational institutions in fairly traditional classroom settings, some elements are offered online, some are created by for-profit firms, some are free, some exploit augmented and virtual reality elements and gaming sensibilities, and a lot of real-time learning takes place in formats that job seekers pursue on their own.

    A considerable number of respondents to this canvassing focused on the likelihood that the best education programs will teach people how to be lifelong learners. Accordingly, some say alternative credentialing mechanisms will arise to assess and vouch for the skills people acquire along the way. A focus on nurturing unique human skills that artificial intelligence AI and machines seem unable to replicate : Many of these experts discussed in their responses the human talents they believe machines and automation may not be able to duplicate, noting that these should be the skills developed and nurtured by education and training programs to prepare people to work successfully alongside AI.

    These respondents suggest that workers of the future will learn to deeply cultivate and exploit creativity, collaborative activity, abstract and systems thinking, complex communication, and the ability to thrive in diverse environments. Still others spoke of more practical needs that could help workers in the medium term — to work with data and algorithms, to implement 3-D modeling and work with 3-D printers, or to implement the newly emerging capabilities in artificial intelligence and augmented and virtual reality.

    Anonymous scientific editor. About a third of respondents expressed no confidence in training and education evolving quickly enough to match demands by Some of the bleakest answers came from some of the most respected technology analysts. They are also struggling with basic issues like identification of individuals taking the courses.

    Several respondents argued that job training is not a primary concern at a time when accelerating change in market economies is creating massive economic divides that seem likely to leave many people behind. Most participants in this canvassing wrote detailed elaborations explaining their positions, though they were allowed to respond anonymously. Their well-considered comments provide insights about hopeful and concerning trends. These findings do not represent all possible points of view, but they do reveal a wide range of striking observations.

    Respondents collectively articulated five major themes that are introduced and briefly explained in the page section below and then expanded upon in more-detailed sections. Some responses are lightly edited for style or due to length. The following section presents a brief overview of the most evident themes extracted from the written responses, including a small selection of representative quotes supporting each point.

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    These experts envision that the next decade will bring a more widely diversified world of education and training options in which various entities design and deliver different services to those who seek to learn. They expect that some innovation will be aimed at emphasizing the development of human talents that machines cannot match and at helping humans partner with technology. They say some parts of the ecosystem will concentrate on delivering real-time learning to workers, often in formats that are self-taught.

    Commonly occurring ideas among the responses in this category are collected below under headings reflecting subthemes.


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    Educators have always found new ways of training the next generation of students for the jobs of the future, and this generation will be no different. Justin Reich. College education which will still favor multi-year, residential education will need to be more focused on teaching students to be lifelong learners, followed by more online content, in situ training, and other such [elements] to increase skills in a rapidly changing information world.

    As automation puts increasing numbers of low- and middle-skill workers out of work, these models will also provide for certifications and training needs to function in an increasingly automated service sector. We will also see what might be called on-demand or on-the-job kind of training programs. We kind of have to, as with continued automation, we will need to retrain a large portion of the workforce. I strongly believe employers will subscribe to this idea wholeheartedly; it increases the overall education of their workforce, which benefits their bottom line.

    Nevertheless, I am a big believer in the college experience, which I see as a way to learn what you are all about, as a person and in your field of study. The confidence in your own self and your abilities cannot be learned in a short course. It takes life experience, or four years at a tough college. At a good college, you are challenged to be your best — this is very resource-intensive and cannot be scaled at this time. Our established systems of job training, primarily community colleges and state universities, will continue to play a crucial role, though catastrophically declining public support for these institutions will raise serious challenges.

    One potential future would be for those universities to abandon the idea that they have faculty teaching their own courses and instead consist entirely of a cadre of less well paid teaching assistants who provide support for the students who are taking courses online. A few respondents said already established institutions cannot be as fully successful as new initiatives. They take too long to teach impractical skills and knowledge not connected to the real world, and when they try to tackle critical thinking for a longer time scale, they mostly fail.

    The sprouts of the next generation of learning tools are already visible. Within the decade, the new shoots will overtake the wilting vines, and we will see all sorts of new initiatives, mostly outside these schooling, academic and training institutions, which are mostly beyond repair. People will shift to them because they work, because they are far less expensive and because they are always available. In the hopefully near future, we will not segregate schooling from work and real-world thinking and development. And, again, the experience of being a student, now confined to grade school, secondary school and university, will expand to include workers, those looking for work, and those who want or need to retrain — as well as what we now think of as conventional education.

    Via simulation, gaming, digital presentations — combined with hands-on, real-world experience — learning and re-education will move out of books and into the world. The more likely enhancement will be to take digital enhancements out into the world — again, breaking down the walls of the classroom and school — to inform and enhance experience. Some respondents expressed confidence in the best of current online education and training options, saying online course options are cost-effective, evolving for the better, and game-changing because they are globally accessible.

    Already, today there are quite effective online training and education systems, but they are not being implemented to their full potential. Edward Friedman. These applications will become more widely used with familiarity that is gained during the next decade. Also, populations will be more tech-savvy and be able to make use of these systems with greater personal ease. In addition, the development of virtual reality, AI assistants and other technological advances will add to the effectiveness of these systems. There will be a greater need for such systems as the needs for new expertise in the workforce [increase] and the capacity of traditional education systems proves that it is not capable of meeting the need in a cost-effective manner.

    These career changes will require retooling, training and education. The adult learners will not be able to visit physical campuses to access this learning; they will learn online. I anticipate the further development and distribution of holoportation technologies such as those developed by Microsoft using HoloLens for real-time, three-dimensional augmented reality. These teaching tools will enable highly sophisticated interactions and engagement with students at a distance. They will further fuel the scaling of learning to reach even more massive online classes.

    As these tools evolve over the next decade, the academics we work with expect to see radical change in training and workforce development, which will roll into although probably against a longer timeline more traditional institutions of higher learning. Many respondents said real-world, campus-based higher education will continue to thrive during the next decade. They said a residential university education helps build intangible skills that are not replicable online and thus deepens the skills base of those who can afford to pay for such an education, but they expect that job-specific training will be managed by employers on the job and via novel approaches.

    The most important skills to have in life are gained through interpersonal experiences and the liberal arts. Frank Elavsky. Traditional four-year and graduate programs will better prepare people for jobs in the future, as such an education gives people a general understanding and knowledge about their field, and here people learn how to approach new things, ask questions and find answers, deal with new situations, etc. Special skills for a particular job will be learned on the job.

    These skills are imperative to focus on, as the future is in danger of losing these skillsets from the workforce. Many people have gained these skills throughout history without any kind of formal schooling, but with the growing emphasis on virtual and digital mediums of production, education and commerce, people will have less and less exposure to other humans in person and other human perspectives.

    But this does not mean that alternative means and paths of learning and accreditation would not be useful as … complementary to the traditional system that has limitations as well. Will training for skills most important in the jobs of the future work well in large-scale settings by ? Respondents in this canvassing overwhelmingly said yes, anticipating that improvements in such education would continue.

    However, many believe the most vital skills are not easy to teach, learn or evaluate in any education or training setting available today. These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do … Tiffany Shlain. There will be an increasing economic incentive to develop mass training that better unlocks this value. Functions requiring emotional intelligence, empathy, compassion, and creative judgment and discernment will expand and be increasingly valued in our culture.

    These skills, interestingly, are the skills specific to human beings that machines and robots cannot do, and you can be taught to strengthen these skills through education. I look forward to seeing innovative live and online programs that can teach these at scale. A mindset of persistence and the necessary passion to succeed are also critical.

    Some who are pessimistic about the future of human work due to advances in capable AI and robotics mocked the current push in the U. An anonymous program director for a major U. The jobs of the future will not need large numbers of workers with a fixed set of skills — most things that we can train large numbers of workers for, we will also be able to train computers to do better. Among the many other skills mentioned were: process-oriented and system-oriented thinking; journalistic skills, including research, evaluation of multiple sources, writing and speaking; understanding algorithms, computational thinking , networking and programming; grasping law and policy; an evidence-based way of looking at the world; time management; conflict resolution; decision-making; locating information in the flood of data; storytelling using data; and influencing and consensus building.

    This will include open, online learning experiences e. We will identify opportunities to build a digital version of the apprenticeship learning models that have existed in the past. Alternative credentials and digital badges will provide more granular opportunities to document and archive learning over time from traditional and nontraditional learning sources.

    Through evolving technologies e. You may get a degree in computer software development, but the truth is that you still need to be taught how to write software for, say, the mortgage company or insurance company that hires you. The key to the future will be flexibility and personal motivation to learn and tinker with new things.

    Some predict that many more workers will begin using online and app-based learning systems. Employers will accept these more as they prove probative. And online learning will be more prevalent, even as an adjunct to formal classroom learning. New industries such as green energy and telemedicine will increase new employment opportunities.

    Despite all of these measures, the loss of jobs from artificial intelligence and robotics will exceed any retraining program, at least in the short run. William J. Online and credentialing systems are more transparent and do a better job on delivering skills. People with new types of credentialing systems are seen as more qualified than traditional four-year and graduate programs. Some respondents hope to see change. Schools today turn out widget makers who can make widgets all the same. They are built on producing single right answers rather than creative solutions.

    Jeff Jarvis.