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- The British Political Tradition and EMU: Policy Legacies, Beliefs, and Co‐Ordination
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- The many faces of Englishness: Identity, diversity and nationhood in England | IPPR
The British Political Tradition and EMU: Policy Legacies, Beliefs, and Co‐Ordination
The willingness of British workers to vote for the Conservatives was already noted and deplored by Engels. Between and the Conservatives were in office for 61 out of 81 years, or 75 per cent of the time. Between and the Conservatives were in Government for 32 out of 52 years, or 67 per cent of the time.
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Within this period the Conservatives have enjoyed long continuous periods when they were either the dominant party in a coalition or governed alone for more than ten years — , , Although the party had under both Pitt and later Liverpool and Canning championed free trade and economic liberalism, the party refused to support Peel in his bid to repeal the Corn Laws. That decision appeared to condemn the party to a marginal role in British politics, ceding the initiative to the Liberals and to Peelites like Gladstone, who now became part of the new governing majority.
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The Tories were rescued from this position by Disraeli, who had been one of the fiercest opponents of Peel in , but from the s onwards managed to position the party to take advantage of the widening franchise and the expansion of empire. Crucial for this, which Disraeli first articulated, and which his successors developed, was an appreciation that a modern Conservative party had to find ways to appeal to the industrial working class, since it could not rely on the votes of the propertied classes, the rural classes, or even the burgeoning middle classes.
Half of its votes had to come from the working class if it was ever to form governments in the Britain that had developed by the end of the nineteenth century. For much of the time they had to preside over imperial retreat and relative economic decline. Yet despite this they succeeded in containing the Labour party and the Labour movement, and more often than not defeating them.
The breakthrough which Labour made in when they secured an electoral landslide and achieved their first ever majority government, proved shortlived. The Conservatives were back in Government in , and remained for thirteen years. All of these have some merit, but still more important has been a distinctive Tory statecraft, which has involved a command and understanding of the British state.
In the view of some she hollowed out the party, and destroyed its traditional strategy and appeal. But in the last fifty years the basis of this style of Unionist politics has been severely undermined. The renewal of disorder in Northern Ireland, and the suspension of the Stormont Parliament and the imposition of direct rule in by a Conservative Government, sundered the parliamentary alliance between the Conservatives and the Ulster Unionists.
It has never been restored. If Edward Heath had still been able to count on Ulster Unionist votes he would not have lost office in In Scotland, the Conservatives were once a significant force. In they won 50 per cent of the Scottish vote and 50 per cent of the Scottish seats. By however the Conservatives were not able to win a single seat in Scotland, and their vote and support had drastically diminished. It was hard to continue to proclaim themselves a Unionist party, when they had so little support in one of the most important components of the Union.
The Conservatives, having favoured devolution to Scotland under Heath, turned against it under Thatcher and Major, and even in , after their resounding defeat, they still urged the Scottish electorate to vote No in the referendum setting up the Scottish Parliament. After Conservatives had no representation in three of the four component nations of the United Kingdom. They had never looked more of an English party, with English roots and English attitudes, and some Conservatives even began to argue that it was now time to abandon the Union. This was the great project of the British state which combined interest and idealism, and provided common purpose for all British citizens.
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It was the basis of the cross-class appeal of the Conservatives to British workers, appealing to their patriotism and national pride, as well as their material interest in employment and prosperity. The domestic political battle of the twentieth century was regarded by many Conservatives as a battle between Imperialism and Socialism. When Churchill talked in of Britain belonging to three circles — Anglo-America, Europe, and the Empire and Commonwealth — there was no doubt for Conservatives, or for Churchill, which was the most important of the three.
The first steps were taken under the Labour Government, but completed under the Conservatives. But the impossibility of going back was shown by the negotiations to return Hong Kong to China. But although the leadership committed the Conservative party to membership, and eventually succeeded in negotiating terms of entry against the opposition of the bulk of the Labour party, this commitment was not sustained. Under Margaret Thatcher, although the pace of integration quickened with the signing of the Single European Act, Conservative opposition to the European grew, and the party became deeply split on the issue.
The British Establishment was in large part a Conservative Establishment, and the Conservatives were intensely proud of the British state, its Monarchy and its institutions, and were strong supporters of the need to cultivate a strong sense of duty and obligation in those who served the state. Many of the reforms were only partially successful, but they helped create the mood of frustration and demotivation in so many public servants that has persisted up to the present.
After the rise of socialism it became the umbrella party for all property interests, whether land, industry, or finance. But the party also had a strong protectionist tradition, particularly after the departure of most of the free traders in Conservatives were often critics of liberalism and unfettered free trade.
This reputation was reinforced during the Tariff Reform controversy at the beginning of the twentieth century when the Conservatives advocated a strongly protectionist programme to counter unfair trading practices by other nations. Since the party did not subscribe to free trade as a universal principle, it was quite happy to see it infringed when there was a substantial domestic interest at stake. In this way the party became associated, particularly in the s, with subsidies to industries in bad times, and with various regulatory devices to suppress competition, and allow self-employed groups like greengrocers and taxidrivers, as well as industries like iron and steel, a substantial amount of protection.
Some of her critics in the party dubbed her policies Manchester School Liberalism. Conservatives had presided over recessions and mass unemployment before, but what made the s different and left an enduring impression on the electorate was that the party leaders justified unemployment as the necessary remedy to restore the economy to health and were unapologetic about the consequences of their policies, which helped deliver a massive shakeout in British industry, a shrinking of the industrial base, and a widening gap between rich and poor, and between regions.
Although it resisted the more extravagant plans of its socialist opponents, the Conservatives were responsible for a great deal of the legislation which established the welfare state, as well as endorsing the main reforms which Labour put in place after Conservative belief in the state and the national community made it relatively easy for the party to adjust to the idea of a National Health Service, and to the social security plans of the Beveridge Report. It worried whether they were affordable but it did not oppose them in principle, and to the dismay of some of its backbenchers the Conservatives were content to administer the welfare state within the parameters they inherited.
This relationship to the welfare state was important in re-assuring the working class Conservative vote, not all of whom were upwardly mobile or rugged self-employed small business people. This was not because the party seriously dismantled the main programmes of the welfare state, indeed the progress of its reforms was disappointing to many in the Government, and still more to its admirers outside.
Public spending remained at a very high level, and spending on education, health and social security all continued to grow, 17 although more slowly than in many other countries. However, the party certainly signalled to the electorate that it did not like the welfare state, or public spending, and gave the impression that whenever it could cut a service, or charge for it, then it would. Over the eighteen years tax cuts were given greater priority than increases in public spending, and as a result British public services by were significantly underfunded compared to public services in most of the rest of the EU.
This did political damage to the Conservatives.
The many faces of Englishness: Identity, diversity and nationhood in England | IPPR
To many voters it seemed that the Conservatives no longer cared for the majority or for the services on which the majority had to rely. He was the first elected leader since the downfall of Thatcher to tell the party that it needed to change and change radically if it was to be re-elected. He and his team quite consciously modelled their approach on Tony Blair and New Labour in They saw the main task to be signalling to the electorate and to the media that the Conservative party had changed, it was no longer the old Conservative party, and that it was worth supporting again.
One of the main techniques used, also copied from Blair and New Labour, was the unilateral policy pronouncement. Without any formal consultation with the party, the Cameron team devised a strategy to ensure eye-catching headlines that would keep Cameron newsworthy and continually in the public eye. Thatcherism sought to rework the Conservative politics of nationhood in the light of changed circumstances, but the Thatcher and Major Governments faced significant problems managing the Union, European integration and a multicultural society.
Don't have an account? Few issues have caused as much domestic turbulence for so long in recent decades as those associated with Britain's role in the European integration process. EMU challenged traditional concerns of British policy on Europe: nationhood, sovereignty, and gradualism. It also conflicted with core Thatcherite policy beliefs about the sensitivity of monetary policy to market conditions.
After the surprise of the Delors Committee outcome, the Whitehall machine established tight policy coordination. Given the political context, however, it remained vulnerable to a narrowness of vision. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.